OpenCL, CUDA & Co.
Usually we think about the CPU when doing work, and GPUs just for games. Things are a little blurry, however. We can use GPUs to make computations immensly faster.
Today's analyses, from DNA sequencers to physical simulations, are providing gigabytes and terabytes of data, exceeding the current computing power. Hence we need to go distributed, on a real cluster.
Mobile computing is ubiquitous and getting more computing power each year. The medical and engineering sectors are perfect candidates for smartphones and tablets apps.
Succinct Data Structures
The available data exceeds the capabilities of a laptop, but it is highly redundant. We need to compress it and remove useless bits, without resorting to an expensive cluster.