OpenCL, CUDA & Co.
Usually we think about the CPU when doing work, and GPUs just for games. Things are a little blurry, however. We can use GPUs to make computations immensly faster.
Smart Data Structures
The available data exceeds the capabilities of a laptop, but it is highly redundant. We need to compress it, remove useless bits, and optimize data structures for modern architectures, without resorting to an expensive cluster.